Basic Qualification

Authority to make "Standards for the Operation of Radio Stations in the Amateur Radio Service" is derived from:
the General Radio Regulations the Radiocommunication Act the Standards for the Operation of Radio Stations in the Amateur Radio Service the ITU Radio Regulations
key word: AUTHORITY. Countries administer radio within their borders and territorial waters. The Canadian parliament enacted the 'Radiocommunication Act' (a law). This law grants authority to Industry-Canada to regulate radio communications. That department then issues 'Radiocommunication Regulations' where services such as the "maritime service", the "aeronautical service" and the "amateur radio service" are defined.
The holder of a radio authorization shall, at the request of a duly appointed radio inspector, show the radio authorization, or a copy thereof, to the inspector, within ____ hours after the request:
48 hours 12 hours 24 hours 72 hours
Holder of radio authorization has 48 HOURS to fulfill the request of a radio inspector. (Radio Regulations)
Out of amateur band transmissions:
must be identified with your call sign are permitted are prohibited - penalties could be assessed to the control operator are permitted for short tests only
Out of band transmissions contravene the regulations of the Amateur service.
Which examinations must be passed before an Amateur Radio Operator Certificate is issued?
Basic 12 w.p.m. 5 w.p.m. Advanced
The Basic Qualification is the only examination to obtain a Certificate ( and a call sign ). [ w.p.m. = words per minute, Morse speed ]
Where a friend is not the holder of any type of radio operator certificate, you, as a holder of an Amateur Radio Operator Certificate with Basic Qualification, may, on behalf of your friend:
install an amateur station, but not operate or permit the operation of the apparatus install and operate the radio apparatus, using your own call sign modify and repair the radio apparatus but not install it not install, place in operation, modify, repair, maintain, or permit the operation of the radio apparatus
key words: FRIEND, NOT the holder of a certificate. Installing or operating a station on behalf of an unlicensed person is prohibited.
Which of the following statements is NOT correct?
A radio amateur may not transmit superfluous signals A radio amateur may not transmit profane or obscene language or messages A radio amateur may not operate, or permit to be operated, a radio apparatus which he knows is not performing to the Radiocommunication Regulations A radio amateur may use his linear amplifier to amplify the output of a licence-exempt transmitter
key words: NOT CORRECT. "1", "2" and "3" are true. Using an amplifier on what is normally a license-exempt transmitter (e.g., a Citizens Band radio) is illegal.
What should you do to keep your station from retransmitting music or signals from a non-amateur station?
Turn up the volume of your transmitter Speak closer to the microphone to increase your signal strength Adjust your transceiver noise blanker Turn down the volume of background audio
Retransmitting programming that originates from a broadcasting undertaking is specifically prohibited in the Radiocommunication Regulations.
Where may the holder of an Amateur Radio Operator Certificate operate an amateur radio station in Canada?
anywhere in Canada anywhere in Canada during times of emergency only at the address shown on Industry Canada records anywhere in your call sign prefix area
Yes, ANYWHERE in Canada but if you change your address permanently, you must notify Industry-Canada within 30 DAYS.
The owner of an amateur station may:
permit anyone to take part in communications only if prior written permission is received from Industry Canada permit anyone to use the station without restrictions permit any person to operate the station under the supervision and in the presence of the holder of the amateur operator certificate permit anyone to use the station and take part in communications
A licensed Amateur, the 'Control Operator', must be in charge of the station whenever it is on the air.
If the regulations say that the amateur service is a secondary user of a frequency band, and another service is a primary user, what does this mean?
Amateurs are allowed to use the frequency band only if they do not cause interference to primary users Nothing special: all users of a frequency band have equal rights to operate Amateurs are only allowed to use the frequency band during emergencies Amateurs must increase transmitter power to overcome any interference caused by primary users
Primary User and Secondary User are statuses assigned to different services when frequency bands are allocated by Industry-Canada. "Stations of a secondary service: a) shall not cause harmful interference to stations of primary service, b) cannot claim protection from harmful interference from stations of a primary service". For example, on 430-450 MHz and 902-928 MHz, the Amateur Radio Service has secondary status behind other services.
It is permissible to interfere with the working of another station if:
the other station is not operating according to the Radiocommunication Regulations you both wish to contact the same station the other station is interfering with your transmission your station is directly involved with a distress situation
key words: DIRECTLY INVOLVED with distress. This is the only acceptable excuse for interference.
What kind of payment is allowed for third-party messages sent by an amateur station?
Donation of amateur equipment Donation of equipment repairs No payment of any kind is allowed Any amount agreed upon in advance
"A person who operates in the Amateur Radio service shall do so without demanding or accepting remuneration in any form". (Radiocommunication Regulations)
How often must an amateur station be identified?
At least every thirty minutes, and at the beginning and at the end of a contact At the beginning of a contact and at least every thirty minutes after that At least once during each transmission At the beginning and end of each transmission
Station identification: your call sign in English or French, at the START and the END of a contact or test transmission and every 30 minutes at the most. Only Remote-Control transmissions to model craft need not include station identification.
A person operating a Canadian amateur station is forbidden to communicate with amateur stations of another country:
when that country has notified the International Telecommunication Union that it objects to such communications without written permission from Industry Canada until he has properly identified his station unless he is passing third-party traffic
key word: FORBIDDEN. Certain countries do not allow amateur communications with their borders; they must notify the ITU that they forbid such communications.
In Canada, the 15 metre amateur band corresponds in frequency to:
18.068 to 18.168 MHz 14.000 to 14.350 MHz 28.000 to 29.700 MHz 21.000 to 21.450 MHz
15-metre: 21.00 to 21.45 MHz. With wavelength in metres being 300 divided by frequency in megahertz: the band covers 14.3 metres to 14.0 metres.
Only one band of amateur frequencies has a maximum allowed bandwidth of less than 6 kHz. That band is:
18.068 to 18.168 MHz 10.1 to 10.15 MHz 24.89 to 24.99 MHz 1.8 to 2.0 MHz
Allowed bandwidths: with the exception of 30m (10.1 to 10.15 MHz) where 1 kHz is allowed, 6 kHz is allowed on bands below 28 MHz, 20 kHz is allowed on 10m (28.0 to 29.7 MHz), 30 kHz is allowed on 6m (50 to 54 MHz) and 2m (144 to 148 MHz), Fast-scan Amateur Television only becomes permissible on 430 to 450 MHz [where 12 MHz of bandwidth is allowed]. In order of bandwidth requirements: CW = about 100 Hz, RTTY = about 600 Hz, SSB = 2 to 3 kHz, FM = 10 to 20 kHz.
At what point in your station is transceiver power measured?
At the final amplifier input terminals inside the transmitter or amplifier At the antenna terminals of the transmitter or amplifier On the antenna itself, after the feed line At the power supply terminals inside the transmitter or amplifier
Amateurs shall use the minimum power necessary to communicate within these restrictions: BASIC Qualification = 250 Watts DC input or 560 Watts PEP ("where expressed as radio frequency output power measured across an impedance-matched load"). ADVANCED Qualification: 1000 Watts DC input. The Morse Qualification has no bearing on the allowed power.
What kind of amateur station automatically retransmits the signals of other stations?
Repeater station Space station Telecommand station Beacon station
A 'Repeater' is generally located on a hill or tall building. It is meant to extend the range of portables and mobiles. 'Beacons' are one-way automated stations maintained by amateurs which operate on known frequencies to permit evaluating propagation conditions.
The maximum percentage of modulation permitted in the use of radiotelephony by an amateur station is:
90 percent 75 percent 50 percent 100 percent
"An amateur station transmitting amplitude modulation is limited to 100 per cent modulation." (RIC-2)
Which of the following is NOT a provision of the ITU Radio Regulations which apply to Canadian radio amateurs?
It is forbidden to transmit international messages on behalf of third parties, unless those countries make special arrangements Radiocommunications between countries shall be forbidden, if the administration of one of the countries objects Transmissions between countries shall not include any messages of a technical nature, or remarks of a personal character Administrations shall take such measures as they judge necessary to verify the operational and technical qualifications of amateurs
key word: NOT. Amateur Radio is precisely the exchange of messages of a technical or personal nature.
In which International Telecommunication Union Region is Canada?
Region 4 Region 3 Region 2 Region 1
The Americas are in ITU Region 2. Australia and Southeast Asia are in ITU Region 3.
The fee for taking examinations for amateur radio operator certificates by an accredited volunteer examiner is:
to be negotiated between examiner and candidate always $20 per qualification always free of charge always $20 per visit regardless of the number of examinations
Accredited examiners are free to negotiate the payment of a fee. (RIC-1)
Before erecting an antenna structure, for which community concerns could be raised, a radio amateur must consult with:
Industry Canada only the land-use authority, and possibly the neighbours Industry Canada and Transport Canada Industry Canada and the neighbours
Type 2 Stations that do NOT require a site specific authorization, e.g., amateur, general radio service (GRS) and satellite receiving stations - non-site-specific. Owners must comply with Safety Code 6. Prior to the installation of an antenna structure for which it is felt that community concerns could be raised, owners must consult with their land-use authority. Industry Canada expects owners to address the concerns of the community in a responsible manner, and to consider seriously all requests put forward by the land-use authority. (CPC-2-0-03)
According to Safety Code 6, what is the maximum safe power output to the antenna of a hand-held VHF or UHF radio?
10 watts not specified - the exemption for portable equipment was withdrawn in 1999 25 watts 125 milliwatts
Health-Canada publishes 'Safety Code 6' (Limits of Human Exposure to Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields) to protect workers and general public from adverse health effects. The lowest exposure limit is set to '28 Volts per metre' for the range of 10 MHz to 300 MHz. This range is presumed to be the one over which the human body most readily absorbs RF energy. Limits on either side of that range are higher. Since 1999, a previous exemption for portable transmitters has been removed (i.e., handhelds are no longer exempt from code requirements).
In the event of interference to a neighbour's FM receiver and stereo system, if the field strength of the amateur station signal is below ____ volts per metre, it will be deemed that the affected equipment's lack of immunity is the cause:
2.8 7.9 1.83 3.16
Field Strength Criterion for 'Broadcast Receivers' (equipment for the reception of broadcast sound and television signals): 1.83 Volts per metre. The "Criteria for Resolution of Immunity Complaints involving Fundamental Emissions of Radiocommunications Transmitters" considers 3 categories of electronic equipment: 'Broadcast Receivers', 'Associated Equipment' (recorders, players, amplifiers, converters, etc.) and 'Radio-Sensitive Equipment' (all other non-radio electronic equipment). (EMCAB-2)
Why should you pause briefly between transmissions when using a repeater?
To check the SWR of the repeater To reach for pencil and paper for third-party communications To dial up the repeater's autopatch To listen for anyone else wanting to use the repeater
Repeaters are meant primarily to extend the range of portables and mobiles. You never know when someone else might need the repeater. Be sure to leave pauses in between transmissions. Anyone wanting the repeater may signal his presence by stating his call sign during one such pause. A station may have emergency traffic.
What is the Standard International Phonetic for the letter L?
Love London Luxembourg Lima
To make a call sign clearer or spell some unusual word, use the International Phonetic Alphabet: Alpha, Bravo, Charlie, Delta, Echo, Fox-Trot, Golf, Hotel, India, Juliet, Kilo, Lima, Mike, November, Oscar, Papa, Quebec, Romeo, Sierra, Tango, Uniform, Victor, Whisky, X-Ray, Yankee, Zulu.
What is the best method to tell if a band is "open" for communication with a particular distant location?
Ask others on your local 2 metre FM repeater Telephone an experienced local amateur Look at the propagation forecasts in an amateur radio magazine Listen for signals from that area from an amateur beacon station or a foreign broadcast or television station on a nearby frequency
'Beacons' are one-way automated stations maintained by amateurs which operate on known frequencies to permit evaluating propagation conditions.
If a net is about to begin on a frequency which you and another station are using, what should you do?
As a courtesy to the net, move to a different frequency Increase your power output to ensure that all net participants can hear you Transmit as long as possible on the frequency so that no other stations may use it Turn off your radio
A 'Net' is an activity carried on a given day and time at a known frequency where stations exchange information. Although no given station is entitled to any specific frequency (regardless of license class, power or affiliation), stations would normally yield to an established daily net but if not, you need to move the net away.
What is the correct way to call "CQ" when using Morse code?
Send the letters "CQ" three times, followed by "DE", followed by your call sign sent once Send the letters "CQ" ten times, followed by "DE", followed by your call sign sent once Send the letters "CQ" over and over Send the letters "CQ" three times, followed by "DE", followed by your call sign sent three times
"CQ" is a general call to any station. "DE" ( French for 'from' ) is the Morse abbreviation for "this is". Other abbreviations include: "K" (go ahead or over), "DX" (distant station) and "73" (best regards). [ "KN" is 'go station' ]
What is the meaning of: "Your signal report is 3 3 "?
Your signal is unreadable, very weak in strength The station is located at latitude 33 degrees Your signal is readable with considerable difficulty and weak in strength The contact is serial number 33
"RST", A short way to describe signal reception ( Readability: 1 to 5, Signal Strength: 1 to 9, Tone Quality (for Morse): 1 to 9 ). For example, "11" unreadable, barely perceptible. "33" difficult to read, weak signal. "45" readable, fairly good. "57" perfectly readable, moderately strong.
What is the meaning of the Q signal "QRS"?
Interference from static Send "RST" report Radio station location is: Send more slowly
Nine Q codes: QRL? frequency in use?, QRM interference, QRN static, QRS send more slowly, QRX will call you, QRZ? who is calling, QSO contact in progress, QSY change frequency, QTH location.
Why is it a good idea to have a way to operate your amateur station without using commercial AC power lines?
So you will comply with rules So you may operate in contests where AC power is not allowed So you may provide communications in an emergency So you may use your station while mobile
Amateurs have a long history of providing emergency communications during disasters. Charged batteries and rapidly-deployable antennas are useful station accessories.
When referring to contacts in the station log, what do the letters UTC mean?
Universal Time Coordinated (formerly Greenwich Mean Time - GMT) Universal Time Constant Unlisted Telephone Call Unlimited Time Capsule
"Coordinated Universal Time", the international time standard. "UTC" is not a true acronym; it is a variant of Universal Time, UT, and has a modifier C (for "coordinated") appended to it. Has replaced Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) is mean solar time at the Royal Greenwich Observatory in Greenwich, England, which by convention is at 0 degrees geographic longitude.
Which component in an HF station is the most useful for determining the effectiveness of the antenna system?
SWR bridge Antenna switch Linear amplifier Dummy load
The 'SWR Bridge' permits measuring the relative impedance match between the antenna system and the transceiver (SWR = Standing Wave Ratio). The HF Station block diagram begins with: Transceiver, Linear Amplifier, Low-Pass Filter, SWR Bridge, Antenna Switch...
In a frequency modulation transmitter, the _________ is located between the modulator and the frequency multiplier.
speech amplifier oscillator power amplifier microphone
The Oscillator frequency and the deviation impressed on it by the Modulator are brought up to the operating frequency through multiplication. The FM Transmitter block diagram: Microphone, Speech Amplifier, Modulator, Oscillator, Frequency Multiplier, Power Amplifier, Antenna.
In a frequency modulation receiver, the _________ is connected to the input of the radio frequency amplifier.
mixer frequency discriminator antenna limiter
In a receiver, an RF amplifier is generally used to amplify the tiny signal (i.e., microvolts) arriving from the Antenna. Once amplified, the incoming signal is fed to the Mixer.
In a CW transmitter, the ______________ is in between the driver/buffer stage and the antenna.
power supply power amplifier telegraph key master oscillator
In all transmitters, the last stage before the Antenna is a Power Amplifier which imparts the transmitted signal it actual power. The CW Transmitter block diagram: Master Oscillator, Driver/Buffer, Power Amplifier, Antenna. A Power Supply supplies DC to all stages. A Telegraph Key activates the Driver and Power Amplifier when pressed.
In a single sideband and CW receiver, the output of the ___________ is connected to the product detector.
mixer beat frequency oscillator radio frequency amplifier audio frequency amplifier
In an SSB/CW receiver, detection (recovery of the message) is performed by a 'Product Detector'. The 'Product Detector' mixes the Intermediate Frequency signal with a Beat Frequency Oscillator to transpose the IF signal down to the audible range. The demodulated signal is applied to an Audio Amplifier to provide sufficient drive for the loudspeaker.
In a single sideband transmitter, the output of the _________ is connected to the mixer.
variable frequency oscillator radio frequency oscillator linear amplifier antenna
The Mixer takes in the SSB signal and the VFO output to bring up the SSB signal at the operating frequency. The SSB Transmitter block diagram: The Balanced Modulator takes in two signals: fixed frequency from an RF Oscillator and the microphone signal after it has passed through a Speech Amplifier. Out of the Balanced Modulator, a Filter selects the desired sideband. This SSB signal is mixed with a Variable Frequency Oscillator (VFO) signal by a Mixer. Out of the Mixer, the SSB signal is now at the operating frequency and is taken through a LINEAR Power Amplifier.
In a digital system, the __________________is controlled by the computer.
antenna power supply transceiver input/output
The Digital Station block diagram: Input/Output, Computer, MODEM, Transceiver, Antenna.
In a regulated power supply, the output of the filter connects to the ____________________.
regulator transformer rectifier output
The pure DC available after the 'Filter' goes through the 'Regulator' which maintains a constant output voltage regardless of input variations or load changes. The blocks in a Regulated Power Supply: Input, Transformer, Rectifier, Filter, Regulator, Output.
In a Yagi-Uda 3 element directional antenna, the ____________ is primarily for mechanical purposes.
reflector driven element director boom
The 'boom' supports the elements of the Yagi.
A receiver receives an incoming signal of 3.54 MHz, and the local oscillator produces a signal of 3.995 MHz. To which frequency should the IF be tuned?
7.435 MHz 3.995 MHz 455 kHz 3.54 MHz
The mixer accepts two inputs: the incoming signal and the local High Frequency Oscillator. Mixing returns two new products: the sum of the two inputs, the difference of the two inputs. The IF Filter seeks to let only one of the products into the Intermediate Frequency chain for amplification through the IF Amplifier. In this example, 3995 kHz minus 3540 kHz yields 455 kHz.
What circuit has a variable-frequency oscillator connected to a driver and a power amplifier?
A crystal-controlled transmitter A VFO-controlled transmitter A single-sideband transmitter A packet-radio transmitter
key words: VFO, Variable Frequency Oscillator. The CW Transmitter block diagram: Master Oscillator, Driver/Buffer, Power Amplifier, Antenna.
How should the microphone gain control be adjusted on a single-sideband phone transmitter?
For slight movement of the ALC meter on modulation peaks For full deflection of the ALC meter on modulation peaks For 100% frequency deviation on modulation peaks For a dip in plate current
ALC -- Automatic Level Control. A feedback circuit from the Linear Power Amplifier to an earlier amplifier stage which seeks to avoid overdriving the transmitter with too much audio. When the ALC acts, it is a corrective action. An infrequent ALC action on modulation peaks indicates that there is no overdriving. If the ALC needed to intervene constantly, this would indicate that the operator is trying to feed too much audio through the transmitter.
What kind of emission would your FM transmitter produce if its microphone failed to work?
A frequency-modulated carrier An amplitude-modulated carrier An unmodulated carrier A phase-modulated carrier
The concept here is that IF NO AUDIO is fed in an FM transmitter, the carrier put out at the Power Amplifier has full amplitude anyway. A carrier which conveys no message is an 'unmodulated carrier'.
Why might a dummy antenna get warm when in use?
Because it absorbs static electricity Because it stores radio waves Because it changes RF energy into heat Because it stores electric current
The 'Dummy Load' (a resistor with a high power rating) dissipates RF energy as heat without radiating the RF on the air. Permits tests or adjustments without causing interference to other stations. The 'tuning process' (or 'loading') refers to a manual procedure necessary for equipment with vacuum tube final Power Amplifiers where variable capacitors needed to be adjusted.
What does "monitoring" mean on a packet-radio frequency?
A member of the Amateur Auxiliary is copying all messages A receiving station is displaying messages that may not be sent to it, and is not replying to any message A receiving station is displaying all messages sent to it, and replying that the messages are being received correctly Industry Canada is monitoring all messages
A 'Terminal-Node Controller' (TNC) is the key component in a packet station. The TNC is a specialized MODEM which assembles/de-assembles data packets and performs error checking. A TNC in "Monitor" mode will display the packets heard but not attempt to acknowledge any.
Which of the following is a source of EMF?
germanium diode lead acid battery P channel FET carbon resistor
EMF = Electromotive Force or voltage. Lead-Acid batteries are commonly used in vehicles. The car battery has a nominal voltage of 12 Volts.
The diode is an important part of a simple power supply. It converts AC to DC, since it:
has a high resistance to AC but not to DC allows electrons to flow in only one direction from cathode to anode has a high resistance to DC but not to AC allows electrons to flow in only one direction from anode to cathode
A DIODE, vacuum tube or semiconductor, has two electrodes: Anode and Cathode. Electrons flow from Cathode to Anode in a forward-biased (i.e., a diode subjected to a voltage polarity which permits conduction) diode.
How little electrical current flowing through the human body can be fatal?
Approximately 10 amperes More than 20 amperes Current flow through the human body is never fatal As little as 1/10 of an ampere
If the human heart is part of the electrocution path, even one tenth of an Ampere can lead to cardiac arrest.
To protect you against electrical shock, the chassis of each piece of your station equipment should be connected to:
a good ground connection a dummy load insulated shock mounts the antenna
An external ground connection on each cabinet serves as a backup to the normal electrical outlet ground ( the 'green' wire in a three-lead power cord ).
Why should you make sure that no one can touch an open-wire feed line while you are transmitting with it?
Because contact might break the feed line Because high-voltage radio energy might burn the person Because contact might cause spurious emissions Because contact might cause a short circuit and damage the transmitter
Even at modest power, touching a radiating antenna or open-wire line can lead to 'RF burns'. Voltage is not the only factor, radio-frequency reaches deep into the skin, potentially causing nasty burns.
Why should directional high-gain antennas be mounted higher than nearby structures?
So they will not direct RF energy toward people in nearby structures So they will be dried by the wind after a heavy rain storm So they will not damage nearby structures with RF energy So they will receive more sky waves and fewer ground waves
RF energy can heat body tissue. VHF and UHF frequencies present the greatest risk. Never point antennas at anyone. Never look into antennas. Disconnect transmission lines before working on antennas (to further reduce the odds of an error at the station exposing to RF).
Which of the following IS NOT amplified by an amplifier?
current resistance power voltage
key word: NOT. Amplifiers work on voltage, current and power.
In order for a diode to conduct, it must be:
close coupled forward-biased enhanced reverse-biased
A DIODE, vacuum tube or semiconductor, has two electrodes: Anode and Cathode. Electrons flow from Cathode to Anode in a forward-biased (i.e., a diode subjected to a voltage polarity which permits conduction) diode. Cathode/Grid/Anode(plate) are electrodes in a vacuum triode. Source/Gate/Drain are electrodes in a Field Effect Transistor (FET, N-Channel or P-Channel). Emitter/Base/Collector are electrodes in a Bipolar Transistor ( type PNP or NPN ).
A transistor can be destroyed in a circuit by:
excessive heat excessive light saturation cut-off
Extreme operating temperatures can rapidly destroy transistors.
The two basic types of field effect transistors (FET) are:
NPN and PNP germanium and silicon inductive and capacitive N and P channel
In a field effect transistor, Source and Drain are the two extremities of a 'channel' made of a single semi-conductor type. NPN and PNP are the two type of BIPOLAR Transistors.
If you do not wish to have current flowing in the grid circuit of a vacuum tube, the grid should be:
positive with respect to the anode negative with respect to the cathode positive with respect to both cathode and anode positive with respect to the cathode
A negative grid repulses the negatively-charged electrons arriving from the cathode. The triode and the FET both rely on a reverse voltage on their control electrodes to affect the current through the device.
If a carbon resistor's temperature is increased, what will happen to the resistance?
It will stay the same It will change depending on the resistor's temperature coefficient rating It will become time dependent It will increase by 20% for every 10 degrees centigrade
Temperature affects all components and conductors.
6.6 kilovolts is equal to:
6600 volts 660 volts 66 volts 66 000 volts
Kilovolt is a thousand volts. Converting from kilovolts to volts: from large units to smaller units, requires more digits, decimal point moves to the right by three positions, a thousand times more.
The reciprocal of resistance is:
conductance reactance reluctance permeability
Reciprocal = 'the inverse of something'. 1 over resistance yields CONDUCTANCE. Low resistance implies high conductance. High resistance implies little conductance.
If you have light bulbs marked 40 watts, 60 watts and 100 watts, which one will use electrical energy the fastest?
They will all be the same The 40 watt bulb The 100 watt bulb The 60 watt bulb
How fast does each one make the electrical utility meter on the side of your house spin ? The device with the highest wattage spins it the fastest.
If a 12-volt battery supplies 0.25 ampere to a circuit, what is the circuit's resistance?
3 ohms 48 ohms 12 ohms 0.25 ohm
Ohm's Law ( I = E / R ) becomes R = E / I when solving for R. Resistance is Voltage divided by current. Ohms = Volts / Amperes. 12 Volts / 0.25 Amperes = 48 ohms.
A 6 volt battery is connected across three resistances of 10 ohms, 15 ohms and 20 ohms connected in parallel.
The current through the separate resistances, when added together, equals the total current drawn from the battery The current flowing through the 10 ohm resistance is less than that flowing through the 20 ohm resistance The voltage drop across each resistance added together equals 6 volts The voltage drop across the 20 ohm resistance is greater than the voltage across the 10 ohm resistance
key word: PARALLEL. In a parallel circuit, the total current is the sum of the currents. 3 and 4 are false because all resistors are subjected to the same voltage in a PARALLEL circuit. 2 is incorrect: Ohm's Law tells us that the smaller resistor will draw more current than the others.
When two 500 ohm 1 watt resistors are connected in parallel, they can dissipate a maximum total power of:
1/2 watt 1 watt 2 watts 4 watts
This is about POWER RATING, not resistance. Two identical resistors can safely dissipate TWICE as much power as only one. [ Yes, total resistance will be half, but that is immaterial here ]
A signal is composed of a fundamental frequency of 2 kHz and another of 4 kHz. This 4 kHz signal is referred to as:
a fundamental of the 2 kHz signal the DC component of the main signal a dielectric signal of the main signal a harmonic of the 2 kHz signal
'Harmonics' are integer MULTIPLES (e.g., 2x, 3x, 4x, 5x,...) of a given frequency. The base frequency is referred to as the 'fundamental'.
A local amateur reports your 100W 2M simplex VHF transmission as 30 dB over S9. To reduce your signal to S9, you would reduce your power to ______ watts.
1 W 10 W 33.3 W 100 mW
To bring a received signal strength of '30 dB OVER Nine S units' down to 'Nine S units' supposes a drop of -30dB, i.e., one thousandth of the original power. In this example, 100 Watts would need to be brought down to 0.1 Watt.
If two equal-value capacitors are connected in parallel, what is their capacitance?
The same value of either capacitor The value of one capacitor times the value of the other Half the value of either capacitor Twice the value of either capacitor
key words: PARALLEL CAPACITORS. Capacitors behave OPPOSITE TO INDUCTORS. With CAPACITORS in PARALLEL, the total value is the sum of the values. Picture in your head, the area of the plates growing as more and more capacitors are added in parallel. More plate area, more capacity.
What is the approximate inductive reactance of a 1 henry choke coil used in a 60 hertz circuit?
376 ohms 3760 ohms 188 ohms 1888 ohms
Reactance is opposition. XL = 2 * PI * f * L. Inductive reactance = two times PI (i.e., 3.14) times frequency in Hertz times inductance in Henrys. XL = 2 * 3.14 * 60 Hz * 1 H = 376.8
A transformer has a 240 volt primary that draws a current of 250 mA from the mains supply. Assuming no losses, what current would be available from a 12 volt secondary?
215 amperes 25 amperes 50 amperes 5 amperes
As work is performed at a lower voltage on the secondary side, current on the secondary is larger. The turns ratio is '20 to 1' ( 240 Volts to 12 Volts ), the current ratio follows the inverse of that ratio: 20 * 0.25 Amperes = 5 Amperes. Method B: Primary consumes 60 Watts ( 240 Volts * 0.25 Amperes ), secondary must draw that same power (discounting losses). What is the secondary current for 60 Watts at 12 Volts ? I = P / E (derived from P = E * I), I = 60 Watts / 12 Volts = 5 Amperes.
Resonance is the condition that exists when:
inductive reactance and capacitive reactance are equal inductive reactance is the only opposition in the circuit the circuit contains no resistance resistance is equal to the reactance
Resonance is the condition where Inductive Reactance (XL) is equal in value to Capacitive Reactance (XC). For a given Inductance (L, a coil or inductor) and Capacitance (C, a capacitor), resonance happens at one frequency: the resonant frequency. At resonance, the two reactances cancel each other, only resistance is left in the circuit.
Which of the following meters would you use to measure the power supply current drawn by a small hand-held transistorized receiver?
a DC ammeter an RF ammeter an RF power meter an electrostatic voltmeter
key word: CURRENT. Ammeter comes from the words Ampere + meter, it is used to measure current.
What connects your transceiver to your antenna?
The power cord A ground wire A feed line A dummy load
"Feed line" is synonym for "transmission line".
A balanced transmission line:
is made of two parallel wires has one conductor inside the other carries RF current on one wire only is made of one conductor only
key word: BALANCED. A 'balanced' transmission line operates with both conductors floating above ground potential (like all types of parallel lines: twin-lead, open-wire line). An 'UNbalanced' transmission line functions with one conductor connected to ground (like coaxial cable or 'coax' for short).
What are some reasons not to use parallel-conductor feed line?
You must use an impedance-matching device with your transceiver, and it does not work very well with a high SWR It does not work well when tied down to metal objects, and it cannot operate under high power It does not work well when tied down to metal objects, and you must use an impedance-matching device with your transceiver It is difficult to make at home, and it does not work very well with a high SWR
key word: NOT. The high Characteristic Impedances and greater separation of the conductors in parallel lines DO permit high power and high Standing Wave Ratio (SWR) BUT nearby metallic objects can affect them and impedance matching is most often necessary at the transmitter end. Their high Characteristic Impedance permits carrying power with less current (P = R * I squared), less current implies less losses due to resistance.
Why should you use only good quality coaxial cable and connectors for a UHF antenna system?
To keep television interference high To keep the power going to your antenna system from getting too high To keep the standing wave ratio of your antenna system high To keep RF loss low
Losses in transmission lines increase with length and operating frequencies. At Ultra High Frequencies (UHF, 300 MHz to 3000 MHz), keeping losses low is paramount.
What does standing-wave ratio mean?
The ratio of maximum to minimum voltages on a feed line The ratio of maximum to minimum inductances on a feed line The ratio of maximum to minimum resistances on a feed line The ratio of maximum to minimum impedances on a feed line
'Standing Waves' result from the interaction of the forward power sent from the transmitter towards the antenna and the reverse power reflected back by an improper impedance match. The interaction produces a repeating pattern of voltage peaks and troughs along the line. SWR is also known as 'Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR)': it is a measure of the peak voltage to the minimum voltage on the standing wave.
If the centre impedance of a folded dipole is approximately 300 ohms, and you are using RG8U (50 ohms) coaxial lines, what is the ratio required to have the line and the antenna matched?
2:1 4:1 10:1 6:1
Impedance transformation of 300 to 50 ohms is required. 300 / 50 = '6 to 1'.
An isotropic antenna is a:
hypothetical point source infinitely long piece of wire dummy load half-wave reference dipole
'Isotropic' means "equal radiation in all directions". An 'isotropic antenna', also called 'isotropic radiator' is an HYPOTHETICAL point source. Plotting the pattern in all planes around the source would yield a 'sphere' as a pattern. The 'isotropic antenna' is used as a reference to compare the gain of real antennas.
If an antenna is made shorter, what happens to its resonant frequency?
It stays the same It increases It disappears It decreases
Wavelength (lambda) in metres IN FREE SPACE is 300 divided by frequency in Megahertz. Wavelength and frequency have an inverse relationship. Antennas on the 2 metre VHF band (144 to 148 MHz) are much shorter than antennas on the 80 metre HF band (3.5 to 4.0 MHz).
The gain of an antenna, especially on VHF and above, is quoted in dBi. The "i" in this expression stands for:
isotropic ideal ionosphere interpolated
Antenna Gain is a ratio, expressed in decibel, of the radiation of a given antenna against some reference antenna. For example, the expression 'dBi' means decibel over an isotropic radiator.
If you made a quarter-wavelength vertical antenna for 21.125 MHz, how long would it be?
3.6 metres (11.8 ft) 3.36 metres (11.0 ft) 7.2 metres (23.6 ft) 6.76 metres (22.2 ft)
key words: QUARTER-wavelength. Wavelength (lambda) in metres IN FREE SPACE is 300 divided by frequency in Megahertz. Answer: 95 % of one quarter wavelength in free space = '300 / 4 * 0.95' divided by frequency in Megahertz = 71.3 divided by frequency in Megahertz. In this example, '300 / 21.125 MHz / 4 * 0.95' = 3.37m
Approximately how long is the driven element of a Yagi antenna for 14.0 MHz?
5.21 metres (17 feet) 10.67 metres (35 feet) 20.12 metres (66 feet) 10.21 metres (33 feet and 6 inches)
key word: DRIVEN. Same approximate length as a HALF-WAVE dipole. Wavelength (lambda) in metres IN FREE SPACE is 300 divided by frequency in Megahertz. Answer: 95 % of one half wavelength in free space = '(300 / 2) * 0.95' divided by frequency in Megahertz = 143 divided by frequency in Megahertz. In this example, '(300 / 14 MHz / 2) * 0.95' = 10.18m .
What is a disadvantage of using an antenna equipped with traps?
It is too sharply directional at lower frequencies It will radiate harmonics It must be neutralized It can only be used for one band
An antenna with traps is a multi-band antenna (i.e., resonant at more than one frequency). If the transmitter leaks harmonic energy (multiples of the operating energy), this harmonic energy may be more readily radiated by a multi-band antenna. For example, traps are inserted in an antenna for 80-metre to permit operation on 40-metre; if your transmitter puts out 'harmonics' while you operate on 80-m ( say, 3.5 MHz ), the second harmonic falls in the 40-m band. The antenna is also resonant at that frequency and would freely radiate the harmonics.
The cubical "quad" or "quad" antenna consists of two or more square loops of wire. The driven element has an approximate overall length of:
three-quarters of a wavelength one wavelength two wavelengths one-half wavelength
key words: LOOP, OVERALL length. A loop antenna is a little over 1 wavelength long (1.02 wavelength to be precise).
When a signal is returned to earth by the ionosphere, what is this called?
Tropospheric propagation Ground-wave propagation Sky-wave propagation Earth-moon-earth propagation
Sky Waves or 'ionospheric waves' rely on refraction in layers of the ionosphere.
Why is the F2 region mainly responsible for the longest distance radio-wave propagation?
Because it exists only at night Because it is the lowest ionospheric region Because it does not absorb radio waves as much as other ionospheric regions Because it is the highest ionospheric region
Above the troposphere and stratosphere, the layers of the ionosphere are: D, E, F1 and F2 (from lowest to highest).
The distance from the transmitter to the nearest point where the sky wave returns to the earth is called the:
skip zone angle of radiation skip distance maximum usable frequency
Do not confuse Skip Distance and Skip Zone. Skip Distance is the "nearest point where the sky wave returns". It marks the end of the Skip Zone which extended from beyond the reach of the Ground Wave to the "nearest point where the sky wave returns".
The usual effect of ionospheric storms is to:
produce extreme weather changes cause a fade-out of sky-wave signals prevent communications by ground wave increase the maximum usable frequency
Ionospheric Storm: exceptional solar activity where greater quantities of particles arrive from the Sun make for more ionization (too much ionization), absorption is increased and may last for days.
All communication frequencies throughout the spectrum are affected in varying degrees by the:
ionosphere aurora borealis atmospheric conditions sun
Because the Sun affects the ionosphere and the troposphere (e.g., temperature inversions), it can be said that it has an influence on all radiocommunications.
What happens to signals higher in frequency than the critical frequency?
They pass through the ionosphere They are absorbed by the ionosphere Their frequency is changed by the ionosphere to be below the maximum usable frequency They are reflected back to their source
The 'Critical Frequency' is a measurement of the highest frequency which will be refracted back to Earth when sent straight up at a given time. Above the Critical Frequency, the wave escapes into space. How high the Critical Frequency is, relates to the ionization level.
Which ionospheric region most affects sky-wave propagation on the 6 metre band?
The F2 region The F1 region The E region The D region
At 50 to 54 MHz, the 6m band normally escapes into space. However, 'Sporadic E' ( intense but temporary ionization of patches in the upper regions of the E layer ) can provide refraction paths for 6m.
If you receive a weak, distorted signal from a distance, and close to the maximum usable frequency, what type of propagation is probably occurring?
Ground-wave Line-of-sight Scatter Ducting
key words: WEAK, DISTORTED. Signals propagated via 'HF Scatter' have a characteristic weak and distorted (hollow, echo-like) sound. The distortion is caused by multi-path effects. Unlike simple refraction, where the entire signal changes direction, scattering splits the signal in many directions (thus explaining the weakness).
What is the result of cross-modulation?
Receiver quieting A decrease in modulation level of transmitted signals Inverted sidebands in the final stage of the amplifier The modulation of an unwanted signal is heard on the desired signal
'Cross-Modulation' is a special case of overload: it too supposes a strong undesired signal. The peculiarity of 'Cross-Modulation' is that the two signals are heard at the same time: the one you want AND the undesired interfering signal.
Stereo amplifiers often have long leads which pick up transmitted signals because they act as:
transmitting antennas RF attenuators frequency discriminators receiving antennas
Long wires act as antennas. The wires should be kept as short as possible. Winding speaker or telephone wires around a 'ferrite core' makes an Inductor (a coil). Inductors oppose (inductive reactance) high frequency AC signals such as Radio-Frequency. The 'ferrite core' makes for more inductance even with only a few turns of wire. Ferrite is a material with electromagnetic properties.
In Morse code transmission, local RF interference (key-clicks) is produced by:
the making and breaking of the circuit at the Morse key frequency shifting caused by poor voltage regulation the power amplifier, and is caused by high frequency parasitics poor waveshaping caused by a poor voltage regulator
key word: LOCAL. 'Key-Clicks' in a CW Transmitter have two manifestations. One in DISTANT receivers, caused by "too sharp rise and decay times of the carrier", results in clicks being heard several kHz away from your operating frequency. The other in NEARBY broadcast receivers, caused by "sparking at the key contacts", results in clicks being heard just like from other electrical devices where currents are switched. A simple 'key-click filter' comprises a choke (an inductor) and a capacitor inserted at the telegraph key.
What type of interference may come from a multi-band antenna connected to a poorly tuned transmitter?
Parasitic excitation Harmonic radiation Intermodulation Auroral distortion
key words: POORLY TUNED TX, MULTI-BAND ANTENNA. Improper adjustment of the transmitter may cause it to put out 'Harmonic Radiation' (integer multiples of the operating frequency). The multi-band antenna will readily radiate these signals at other frequencies.
A low pass filter suitable for a high frequency transmitter would:
pass audio frequencies above 3 kHz attenuate frequencies below 30 MHz attenuate frequencies above 30 MHz pass audio frequencies below 3 kHz
key words: HIGH-FREQUENCY. A 'Low-Pass' filter with a cutoff frequency of 30 MHz helps curb harmonics out of an HF transmitter. The filter allows frequencies BELOW the cutoff to pass freely but attenuates frequencies above the cutoff. The HF segment of the radio spectrum spans 3 MHz to 30 MHz.
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